We developed a block polymer-based synthetic route to sulfonated porous composites (SPCs) with precisely controlled nanopore size. By reducing the pore size to <4 nm and introducing a high density of surface sulfonic acid, the permeation of vanadium ions was effectively suppressed. We employed a polymerization-induced microphase separation (PIMS) process, in which a polyethylene fiber mat impregnated with a liquid polymerization mixture was spontaneously transformed into a fiber-reinforced and cross-linked block polymer membrane. Selective etching and sulfonation then produced the target composite membrane. In a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) cell, an SPC with 3.6 nm-sized mesopores, 109 m(2) g(-1) of specific surface area, and 0.3 mL g(-1) of mesoporosity outperformed a Nafion 212 membrane of similar thickness, providing higher proton conductivity and much lower vanadium permeability. Thanks to the composite reinforcement, the membrane demonstrated remarkably enhanced mechanical stability. The SPC membrane could be successfully operated up to 300 cycles. Compared with Nafion 212, the SPC exhibited higher energy efficiencies (EEs) and higher discharge capacity retention. These results suggest the promise of block polymer-based permselective membranes in advanced battery applications.