Biogas is an increasingly attractive renewable resource, envisioned to secure future energy demands and help curb global climate change. To capitalize on this resource, membrane processes and state-of-the-art membranes must efficiently recover methane (CH4) from biogas by separating carbon dioxide (CO2). Composite (a.k.a. mixed-matrix) membranes, prepared from common polymers and rationally selected/engineered fillers, are highly promising for this application. This review comprehensively examines filler materials that are capable of enhancing the CO2/CH4 separation performance of polymeric membranes. Specifically, we highlight novel synthetic strategies for engineering filler materials to develop high-performance composite membranes. Besides, as the matrix components (polymers) of composite membranes largely dictate the overall gas separation performances, we introduce a new empirical metric, the "Filler Enhancement Index" (F-index), to aid researchers in assessing the effectiveness of the fillers from a big data perspective. The F-index systematically decouples the effect of polymer matrices and critically evaluates both conventional and emerging fillers to map out a future direction for next-generation (bio)gas separation membranes. Beyond biogas separation, this review is of relevance to a broader community with interests in composite membranes for other gas separation processes, as well as water treatment applications.