Fermentation strategies for production of high concentrations of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] with different 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) fractions by recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the Alcaligenes latus polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes were developed. Fed-batch cultures of recombinant E. coli with the pa-stat feeding strategy facilitated production of high concentrations and high contents of P(3HB-co-3HV) in a chemically defined medium. When a feeding solution was added in order to increase the glucose and propionic acid concentrations to 20 g/liter and 20 mM, respectively, after each feeding, a cell dry weight of 120.3 g/liter and a relatively low P(3HB-co-3HV) content, 42.5 wt%, were obtained. Accumulation of a high residual concentration of propionic acid in the medium was the reason for the low P(3HB-co-3HV) content. An acetic acid induction strategy was used to stimulate the uptake and utilization of propionic acid. When a fed-batch culture and this strategy were used, we obtained a cell concentration, a P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration, a P(3HB-co-3HV) content, and a 3HV fraction of 141.9 g/liter, 88.1 g/liter, 62.1 wt%, and 15.3 mol%, respectively. When an improved nutrient feeding strategy, acetic acid induction, and oleic acid supplementation were used, we obtained a cell concentration, a P(3HB-co3HV) concentration, a P(3HB-co-3HV) content, and a 3HV fraction of 203.1 g/liter, 158.8 g/liter, 78.2 wt%, and 10.6 mol%, respectively; this resulted in a high level of productivity, 2.88 g of P(3HB-co3HV)/liter-h.