We demonstrate that graphene can enhance the etch resistance of polymeric hardmask significantly. Graphene oxide with a sub-micrometer diameter (nGO) was functionalized with fluorinated poly (hydroxyamide) (FPHA) via a chemical coupling reaction. The FPHA-functionalized-nGO can be dispersed in various organic solvents including methanol, cyclohexanone, dimethylformamide, and N-methyl pyrrolidone. In addition, the dispersions were spincoated to prepare hardmask films which were then thermally annealed to produce nRGO-fluorinated-polybenzoxazole (FPBO) film. Compared to pristine FPBO film, elastic modulus (122%), hardness (92%), and etch resistance (54%) were significantly enhanced at 17 wt.% graphene loading, surpassing the properties of commercial CHM009 film. (C) 2019 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.