Human papillomavirus E2 protein is a transcription factor of viral gene expression and DNA replication. Here we show that PARP is a positive regulator of the E2 protein of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18). PARP interacted with the COOH terminal region of HPV-18 E2 in vitro. The E2 interaction domain within PARP is located in the NH2-terminal zinc finger motif and the BRCT motif included in the automodification domain. Overexpression of either wild type or the NH2-terminal region of PARP containing zinc finger and BRCT stimulated E2-dependent transcription. Gel retardation assay indicates that PARP augments DNA binding activity of E2 in vitro. We also show that PARP-1 is recruited to E2-dependent promoter in vivo using ChIP assay. These results suggest that PARP serves a transcriptional co-activator in E2-dependent transcription by interacting directly with the HPV E2 protein.