We herein describe a novel technology, termed self-priming phosphorothioated hairpin-mediated isothermal amplification (SP-HAMP), enabling target nucleic acid detection. Isothermal amplification strategies are a simple process that efficiently raises the amount of nucleic acid at a constant temperature, but still has lots of problems such as the requirement of multiple exogenous primers and enzymes, which trigger non-specific background signal and increase the complexity of procedures. The key component for overcoming the above-mentioned limitations is the designed hairpin probe (HP) consisting of self-priming region along the 3' stem and the 3' overhang and phosphorothioate modifications at the 5' overhang and the specific loop part. The HP was designed to open through binding to target nucleic acid. Upon opening of HP, its self-priming (SP) region is rearranged to form a smaller hairpin whose 3' end could serve as a primer. The following extension produces the extended HP and displaces the bound target nucleic acid, which is then recycled to open another HP. Due to the reduced stability caused by the specific two phosphorothioate (PS) modifications, the 3' end of EP1 is readily rearranged to form the foldback hairpin structure, which would promote the foldback extension to produce once more extended HP. Since the two PS modifications are always located at the same positions along the 5' stem within the further extended HPs, the foldback reaction followed by the extension would be continuously repeated, consequently producing a large number of the long hairpin concatamers. Based on this unique design principle, we successfully detected even a single copy of target DNA with outstanding discrimination capability under an isothermal condition by employing only a single HP without the requirement for the complicated multiple primers. In conclusion, the sophisticated design principle employed in this work would provide great insight for the development of self-operative isothermal amplifying system enabling short target nucleic acid detection such as microRNAs or any target which is less than 200 mer.