Various applications of biopolymer-based soil treatment (BPST) in geotechnical engineering have been implemented in recent years, including dust control, soil strengthening and erosion control. Despite BPST methods can ensure the effectiveness of engineering while meeting environmental protection requirements, BPST technology requires further validation in terms of site applicability, durability, and economic feasibility. This study aims to provide a state-of-the-art review and future prospective of BPST. Current biopolymer types, engineered and assessed in laboratory scales, are described along with site implementation attempts. The effect of biopolymers on soil behavior is reviewed with regard to geotechnical engineering application and practice, including soil consistency limits, strength parameters, hydraulic conductivity, soil-water characteristics, and erosion control. The economic feasibility and sustainability of BPST application in ground improvement and earth stabilization practices is discussed. This review postulates biopolymers to be a promising new, environmentally friendly ground improvement material for geotechnical and construction engineering practice.