The net force and moment of a joint have been widely used to understand joint disease in the foot. Meanwhile, it does not reflect the physiological forces on muscles and contact surfaces. The objective of the study is to estimate active moments by muscles, passive moments by connective tissues and joint contact forces in the foot joints during walking. Joint kinematics and external forces of ten healthy subjects (all males, 24.7 +/- 1.2 years) were acquired during walking. The data were entered into the five segment musculoskeletal foot model to calculate muscle forces and joint contact forces of the foot joints using an inverse dynamics-based optimization. Joint reaction forces and active, passive and net moments of each joint were calculated from muscle and ligament forces. The maximum joint reaction forces were 8.72, 4.31, 2.65, and 3.41 body weight (BW) for the ankle, Chopart's, Lisfranc and metatarsophalangeal joints, respectively. Active and passive moments along with net moments were also obtained. The maximum net moments were 8.6, 8.4, 5.4 and 0.8%BW.HT, respectively. While the trend of net moment was very similar between the four joints, the magnitudes and directions of the active and passive moments varied between joints. The active and passive moments during walking could reveal the roles of muscles and ligaments in each of the foot joints, which was not obvious in the net moment. This method may help narrow down the source of joint problems if applied to clinical studies. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.