Recent technological advances in developing a diverse range of lasers have opened new avenues in material processing. Laser processing of materials involves their exposure to rapid and localized energy, which creates conditions of electronic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium. The laser-induced heat can be localized in space and time, enabling excellent control over the manipulation of materials. Metal oxides are of significant interest for applications ranging from microelectronics to medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the synthesis, manipulation, and patterning of metal oxide films and nanostructures. Besides providing a brief overview on the principles governing the laser-material interactions, here, the ongoing efforts in laser irradiation of metal oxide films and nanostructures for a variety of applications are reviewed. Latest advances in laser-assisted processing of metal oxides are summarized.