The purpose of this research is to remove barriers hindering radio frequency identification (RFID) adoption/diffusion in industries, and help firms develop effective supply chain management (SCM) practices utilizing RFID, by elucidating the specific mechanisms through which RFID influences supply chain performance (SCP). On the basis of the technology-organization-environment framework, this research examines the technological characteristics and practical context of RFID usage in our theoretical model. It investigates how RFID utilization contributes to supply chain information sharing (SCIS) and, in turn, how SCIS influences SCP. The supply chain culture of competitiveness (SCCC) is proposed as a moderator of the links between RFID utilization and SCIS, and between SCIS and SCP. RFID utilization enhances SCP through the mediating effect of SCIS. The SCCC moderates the effect of RFID utilization on SCIS and directly contributes to SCP. RFID utilization can be an alternative to supplement market competitiveness. Nevertheless, from a long-term perspective, supply chains should develop an SCM strategy, oriented toward learning, innovativeness and entrepreneurship, for the enormous impacts of SCCC on SCP. On the basis of the resource-based view, we focus on the notion of the SCCC instead of individual firm characteristics to operationalize organizational characteristics.