We study electrostatic interactions of polystyrene particles at an oil/water interface controlled by a chemical reaction of carboxylate surface functional groups. By replacing the carboxyl functional groups with hydrocarbon chains using the well-known EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide) coupling reaction, the surface charge density decreases while the hydrophobicity of the colloid surface increases. Direct visualization of the particle-laden interface reveals that, depending on the extent of hydrocarbon coupling, the strength of the electrostatic repulsion can be regulated: the repulsive interaction increases with the reaction, removing aggregates, but rapidly decreases if the reaction proceeds too much, forming a large aggregation. This simple reaction, thus, dramatically changes the structures of the colloidal monolayers at the oil/water interface. We conclude that such structural change is the result of change of the repulsive interactions from the oil phase, although interactions in the water phase are also changed slightly.