A new semi-active control strategy for seismic response reduction using a neuro-controller and a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper is proposed. The proposed control system consists of the improved neuro-controller and the bang-bang-type controller. The improved neuro-controller, which was developed by employing the training algorithm based on a cost function and the sensitivity evaluation algorithm replacing an emulator neural network, produces the desired active control force, and then the bang-bang-type controller causes the MR fluid damper to generate the desired control force, so long as this force is dissipative. In numerical simulation, a three-story building structure is semi-actively controlled by the trained neural network under the historical earthquake records. The simulation results show that the proposed semi-active neuro-control algorithm is quite effective to reduce seismic responses. In addition, the semi-active control system using MR fluid dampers has many attractive features, such as the bounded-input, bounded-output stability and small energy requirements. The results of this investigation, therefore, indicate that the proposed semi-active neuro-control strategy using MR fluid dampers could be effectively used for control of seismically excited structures.