Y2O3:Eu phosphor particles were prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis. The morphological control of Y2O3:Eu particles in spray pyrolysis was attempted by adding polymeric precursors to the spray solution. The effect of composition and amount of polymeric precursors on the morphology, crystallinity and photoluminescence characteristics of Y2O3:Eu particles was investigated. Particles prepared from a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) with an average molecular weight of 200 had a hollow structure, while those prepared from solutions containing adequate amounts of citric acid (CA) and PEG had a spherical shape, filled morphology and clean surfaces after post-treatment at high temperature. Y2O3:Eu particles prepared from an aqueous solution with no polymeric precursors had a hollow structure and rough surfaces after post-treatment. The phosphor particles prepared from solutions with inadequate amounts of CA and/or PEG also had hollow and/or fragmented structures. The particles prepared from the solution containing 0.3 MCA and 0.3 MPEG had the highest photoluminescence emission intensity, which was 56% higher than that of the particles prepared from aqueous solution without polymeric precursors.