A fluorescence energy transfer (ET) dye-labeled STR typing system (ET 16-plex) is developed for the markers used in the commercial STR typing kit PowerPlex 16, and its performance assessed using a 96-lane microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis (mu CAE) system. The ET 16-plex amplicons displayed 1.6-9-fold higher fluorescence intensities compared to those produced using the single-dye (SD)-labeled multiplex kits. The ET multiplex delivered full STR profiles from 62.5 pg of DNA; half the input required for the SD kits while maintaining a similar heterozygote allele balance. This increased sensitivity should improve typing of poor-quality DNA samples by making minor or imbalanced alleles more readily detectable at the low copy number (LCN) threshold. The ET 16-plex also generated complete profiles with only 28 PCR cycles; this capability should improve LCN typing by reducing the amplification time and drop-in allele incidence. To confirm the practical advantages of ET-labeled primers, six previously problematic casework samples were tested and only the ET 16-plex kit was able to capture additional allele data. The successful development and demonstration of ET primers for higher sensitivity STR typing offers a simple solution to improving current commercial multiplex typing capability. The superior spectral properties and universal compatibility with any primer sequence provided by ET cassettes will make future multiplex construction more facile and straightforward. The pairing of ET cassette technology with the mu CAE system illustrates not only an enhanced STR typing platform, but a significant step toward a higher-efficiency forensic laboratory enabled by better chemistry and microfluidics.