In this paper, the topology optimization of inner-wall stiffener of cylindrical containers for the use as a rocket fuel tank is presented. Such structures for space mission should have high stiffness against the buckling while their weight should be maintained low from the viewpoint of cost and performance. Therefore in the present work the reciprocal of critical buckling load is adopted as an objective function and the total mass of stiffener is constrained to a prescribed value. Due to the restriction of computational resources a section of cylindrical container is topologically optimized and this result is repeated to obtain the full design. Also, for manufacturability the concept of periodic topology pattern in design domain is newly introduced. In the numerical examples, the results by the proposed approach are investigated and compared with those of isogrid design. Copyright ？ 2004 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.