Small molecules that modulate specific protein functions are valuable tools for dissecting complex signaling pathways. Here, we identified a small molecule that induces the assembly of the interferon-beta (IFN-beta) enhanceosome by stimulating all the enhancer-binding activator proteins: ATF2/c-JUN, IRF3, and p50/p65 of NF-kappa B. This compound stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1), which is a member of a family of proteins involved in stress-mediated signaling pathways. Consistent with this, MEKK1 activates IRF3 in addition to ATF2/c-JUN and NF-kappa B for the assembly of the IFN-beta enhanceosome. MEKK1 activates IRF3 through the c-JUN amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway but not the p38 and I kappa B kinase (IKK) pathway. Taken together with previous observations, these results implicate that, for the assembly of an IFN-beta enhanceosome, MEKK1 can induce IRF3 and ATF2/c-JUN through the JNK pathway, whereas it can induce NF-kappa B through the IKK pathway. Thus, specific MEKK family proteins may be able to integrate some of multiple signal transduction pathways leading to the specific activation of the IFN-beta enhanceosome.