Crack growth and closure behaviour of surface cracks in 7075-T6 aluminium alloy are investigated under axial loading, noting the difference in fatigue growth behaviour at the maximum crack depth point and at the surface intersection point and also with through-thickness crack growth behaviour. The plane strain closure response at the point of maximum depth of a surface crack is monitored using an extensometer spanning the surface crack at the midpoint of its length. The plane stress closure at the surface intersection point is observed by multiple strain gauges placed at appropriate intervals ahead of the crack tip and continuously monitored without interrupting the fatigue test. The crack opening ratio is found to be about 10% greater at the maximum depth point than at the surface intersection point. Under axial loading, the difference in plane strain crack closure behaviour between the surface crack and the through-thickness crack is relatively small. Growth rates of surface cracks can be well described by the effective stress intensity factor range based on the closure measurements made in this study. The growth rates in terms of the effective stress intensity factor range seem to be slightly slower in surface cracks than in through-thickness cracks.