A person’s practice, training, and overall sports experience is supported and enriched by the ability to the perceive body movement. Based on research on related literature and commercialized products and services, we have defined the types of information that requires objectification and visualization via an interactive technology. Invisible information on body movement (i.e., information that is difficult to observe by subjective sensation or method) often plays a fundamental role in sports performance. In addition, invisible information can be considered one of the factors that make it harder to learn sports skills because it is perceived subjectively and differently by the performer and by others.
In this dissertation, based on three consecutive case studies that objectify invisible information on body movement, we identify the design space for visualizing body movement. The Motion Echo Snowboard was developed as the first case study: it visualizes the weight distribution on the snowboard in real time and displays it in the form of a heat map on the board. Through this case study, the fundamental usability of visualized invisible information was confirmed. In a second case study, the Motion Log Skateboard was developed to explore the usability of comparing and sharing invisible information on body movement in skateboarding. This system records and reviews data on position and timing of a skateboarder’s feet movements through mobile phone video recordings. In the third case study, Motion Echo Snowboard 2, the properties of invisible information on body movement were explored. The Motion Echo Snowboard2 system aimed to support snowboarder’s ground training in jibbing (jumping and sliding on the obstacle). Two types of invisible information, internal and external, were defined and selected to be visualized.
Through a series of case studies, we explored how visualization of invisible information affects learning sports skills as well as a person’s sports training experience. These results could help elucidate conditions under which movement visualization should be designed to support training, rehabilitation, play, and other purposes. Finally, the factors to consider when developing visual supports for future sports interaction services or products will be explored.