In this paper, a new indirect feedback active noise control (ANC) scheme based on the fundamental frequency estimation is proposed for systems with a harmonic noise. When reference signals necessary for feedforward ANC configuration are difficult to obtain, the conventional ANC algorithms for multi-tonal noise do not measure the reference signals but generate them with the estimated frequencies . However, the beating phenomena, in which certain frequency components of the noise vanish intermittently, may make the adaptive frequency estimation difficult. The confusion in the estimated frequencies due to the beating phenomena makes the generated reference signals worthless. The proposed algorithm consists of two parts. The first part is a reference generator using the fundamental frequency estimation and the second one is the conventional feedforward control. We propose the fundamental frequency estimation algorithm using decision rules, which is insensitive to the beating phenomena. In addition, the proposed fundamental frequency estimation algorithm has good tracking capability and lower variance of frequency estimation error than that of the conventional cascade ANF method. We are also able to control all interested modes of the noise, even which cannot be estimated by the conventional frequency estimation method because of the poor SIN ratio. We verify the performance of the proposed ANC method through simulations for the measured cabin noise of a passenger ship and the measured time-varying engine booming noise of a passenger vehicle. (C) 2001 Academic Press.