1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP), 1,4-diaminobutane (1,4-DAB), and 1,5-diaminopentane (1,5-DAP) are important chemicals due to their wide industrial use including agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, and building blocks for nylon synthesis. Over the last decade, several studies on bio-based production of diamines by metabolically engineered microorganisms have been published. However, development of efficient methods for the recovery of 1,3-DAP, 1,4-DAB, and 1,5-DAP from fermentation broth has not been reported. In this study, an efficient process for the separation and purification of 1,3-DAP, 1,4-DAB, and 1,5-DAP from fermentation broth without using highly flammable or toxic solvents was developed. The optimal process for the recovery and purification of these diamines from fermentation broth comprises several unit operations including removal of cell debris, decolorization of fermentation broth, product concentration, deprotonation of diamines, product separation, and final polishing to obtain pure 1,3-DAP, 1,4-DAB, and 1,5-DAP with yields of 87 ± 3%, 86 ± 4%, and 81 ± 2%, respectively. Process development for the recovery and purification of fermentatively produced diamines reported here is expected to facilitate synthesis of bio-based nylons. Furthermore, the strategy reported here could be similarly applicable in developing downstream processes to recover and purify other diamines and related chemicals from fermentation broth.