Wearable sensor systems with ultra-thinness, light weight, high flexibility, and stretchability that are conformally in contact with the skin have advanced tremendously in many respects, but they still face challenges in terms of scalability, processibility, and manufacturability. Here, we report a highly stretchable and wearable textile-based self-powered temperature sensor fabricated using commercial thermoelectric inks. Through various combinations of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and graphene inks, we obtained linear temperature-sensing capability. The optimized sensor generates a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.1 mV for a temperature difference of 100 K through a combination of PEDOT:PSS and AgNPs inks and it shows high durability up to 800 cycles of 20% strain. In addition, the knitted textile substrate exhibits temperature-sensing properties that are dependent upon the stretching directions. We believe that stretchable thermoelectric fabric has broader potential for application in human-machine interfaces, health-monitoring technologies, and humanoid robotics.