We report ZnO nanowire- and TiO2 nanotube-based light sensors on flexible polymer substrates fabricated by localized hydrothermal synthesis and liquid phase deposition (LPD). This method realized simple and cost-effective in situ synthesis and integration of one-dimensional ZnO and TiO2 nanomaterials. The fabricated sensor devices with ZnO nanowires and TiO2 nanotubes show very high sensitivity and quick response to the ultraviolet (UV) and ambient light, respectively. In addition, our direct synthesis and integration method result in mechanical robustness under external loading such as static and cyclic bending because of the strong bonding between the nanomaterial and the electrode. By controlling the reaction time of the LPD process, the Ti/Zn ratio could be simply modulated and the spectral sensitivity to the light in the UV to visible range could be controlled.