Nerve growth strongly relies on multiple chemical and physical signals throughout development and regeneration. Currently, a cure for injured neuronal tissue is an unmet need. Recent advances in fabrication technologies and materials led to the development of synthetic interfaces for neurons. Such engineered platforms that come in 2D and 3D forms can mimic the native extracellular environment and create a deeper understanding of neuronal growth mechanisms, and ultimately advance the development of potential therapies for neuronal regeneration. This progress report aims to present a comprehensive discussion of this field, focusing on physical feature design and fabrication with additional information about considerations of chemical modifications. We review studies of platforms generated with a range of topographies, from micro-scale features down to topographical elements at the nanoscale that demonstrate effective interactions with neuronal cells. Fabrication methods are discussed as well as their biological outcomes. This report highlights the interplay between neuronal systems and the important roles played by topography on neuronal differentiation, outgrowth, and development. The influence of substrate structures on different neuronal cells and parameters including cell fate, outgrowth, intracellular remodeling, gene expression and activity is discussed. Matching these effects to specific needs may lead to the emergence of clinical solutions for patients suffering from neuronal injuries or brain-machine interface (BMI) applications.