The process for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB/V)] by bacterial fermentation and its recovery was analysed. The effects of various factors such as P(3HB/V) content, P(3HB/V) productivity, P(3HB/V) yield and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) fraction in P(3HB/V) on the production cost of P(3HB/V) were examined. The increase in the 3HV yield on a carbon source did not significantly decrease the production cost when the 3HV fraction was 10 mol%, because the cost of the carbon substrate for 3HV was relatively small in terms of the total cost. However, at a 3HV fraction of 30 mol%, the 3HV yield on a carbon source had a significant effect on the total P(3HB/V) production cost. The production cost of P(3HB/V) increased linearly with the increase in the 3HV fraction in P(3HB/V).