This study describes the development of a microfluidic device for the high-throughput screening of culture conditions, such as the optimum sodium acetate concentration for promoting rapid growth and high lipid accumulation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. An analysis of the microalgal growth on the microfluidic device revealed an optimum sodium acetate concentration of 5.72 g L-1. The lipid content, determined by the 4,4-Difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPYA (R) 505/515) staining method, increased with the sodium acetate concentration. The results were found to be statistically reproducible with respect to cell growth and lipid production. Other nutrient conditions, including the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, can also be optimized on the same microfluidic platform. The microfluidic device performance results agreed well with the results obtained from the flask-scale experiments, validating that the culture conditions were scalable. Finally, we, for the first time, established a method for the absolute quantification of the microalgal lipid content in the picoliter culture volumes by comparing the on-chip and off-chip data. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated the high-throughput screening of sodium acetate concentrations that induced high growth rates and high lipid contents in C. reinhardtii cells on the microfluidic device.