This paper develops a framework for analyzing international standardization strategies of latecomers based on the level of technological capabilities and social-institutional-economic opportunities. Three Korean cases of TPEG, T-DMB, and Binary COMA technologies and standards were studied, and from the results it is argued that latecomer standardization strategies converge to those of advanced countries as the latecomers reach the cutting edge of technology. Latecomer countries' strategies may initially be limited to an "adoption" strategy. However, latecomer countries may consider participatory standards and compatible variations while their capabilities are developing, and ultimately new independent standards are possible once latecomers join the league of advanced countries. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.