The canine fearfulness is a behavioral trait known to have a genetic basis. This research analyzed genetic effects of the dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism on this behavior by postulating a mixed model of inheritance. Genotyping for the three different repeat polymorphism found in the third exon of the receptor gene was carried out for the population of the Korean native dogs. Four hundred fifty eight dogs with known pedigree were genotyped, and 264 individuals were tested for their fear responses to an experimenter, in which four different behavioral paradigms were adopted. Since the results assessed by principal factor analysis revealed a major factor explaining 69% of the total phenotypic variance, the subsequent analyses were conducted for this quantity. Analyses of the factor scores by estimating their posterior means indicated that there is a fixed effect exerted by the three different repeat polymorphism found in the D4 receptor as well as sex, in addition to unidentified polygenic effects. The phenotypic contribution of the D4 genotype was roughly estimated to be about 2%, which is a fraction of the total genetic effects responsible for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variance.