This article provides clinical practice guidelines for neurologists in the assessment of neurobehavioral and neurocognitive deficits. It has been known that cognitive functions lie mainly in the cortex and that different cortical areas mediate different cognitive functions. Therefore, the evaluation of cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms helps localize these symptoms. This article describes the bedside history taking and clinical examinations for patients with neurobehavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. It includes the assessment of aphasia, apraxia, Gerstmann syndrome, visuospatial dysfunctions, neglect syndrome, memory disturbances, and frontal lobe dysfunctions. This guideline will offer better approaches to patients with cognitive deficits and neurobehavioral problems.