The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase gene of Drosophila melanogaster contains three divergent copies of an evolutionarily conserved 3' exon. Two mRNAs encoding aldolase contain three exons and differ only in the poly(A) site. The first exon is small and noncoding. The second encodes the first 332 amino acids, which form the catalytic domain, and is homologous to exons 2 through 8 of vertebrates. The third exon encodes the last 29 amino acids, thought to control substrate specificity, and is homologous to vertebrate exon 9. A third mRNA substitutes a different 3' exon (4a) for exon 3 and encodes a protein very similar to aldolase. A fourth mRNA begins at a different promoter and shares the second exon with the aldolase messages. However, two exons, 3a and 4a, together substitute for exon 3. Like exon 4a, exon 3a is homologous to terminal aldolase exons. The exon 3a-4a junction is such that exon 4a would be translated in a frame different from that which would produce a protein with similarity to aldolase. The putative proteins encoded by the third and fourth mRNAs are likely to be aldolases with altered substrate specificities, illustrating alternate use of duplicated and diverged exons as an evolutionary mechanism for adaptation of enzymatic activities.