The understanding of CHF phenomenon and an accurate prediction of the CHF condition are important for safe and economic design of many heat transfer units including nuclear reactors, fossil fuel boilers, fusion reactors, electronic chips, etc. The phenomenon has been investigated extensively over the world since Nukiyama (1934) first characterized it. In particular, a large amount of significant work has been done during the last four decades with the development of water cooled nuclear reactors.
The wettability of the heated surface under pool boiling of surfactant solutions and nano-fluids has been investigated. Tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, $Na_3PO_4$) solutions and Aluminum oxide nano-fluids were prepared for experiments. Contact angles of pure water and the solutions on the quenched surface and fresh surface were measured. Surfaces deposited TSP and nano-particle could affect surface energy of the strips and enhance hydrophilicity of the surfaces. Several implications of the experimental results on the pool boiling CHF model and CHF enhancement using TSP and NF were discussed.
A increase of CHF was observed with nano-fluid. The addition of nano-particle helped to increase the wettability by reducing the surface tension. This happens with the decrease in bubble diameter, breakup of bubbles and avoidance of bubble coalescence. CHF increase or decrease depends upon competition between high wettability and high instability. An optimum nano-fluid concentration is needed which must have high crystalline content. When the concentration reaches at a critical value, CHF will tend to a constant value.
As the results of previous study, surface tension effect the results of CHF. And it is same to nano-fluids, because surface tension change the dynamics of mixture fluids at two phase and means the instability of thermal hydraulics. Contact angle which be in the limelight at recent research means wettability of heated surface. However, in case of nano-fluids, both...