Blood flow dynamics in microvascular networks are intimately related to the health of tissues and organs. While numerous imaging modalities and techniques have been developed to assess blood flow dynamics for various applications, their utilization has been hampered by limited imaging speed and indirect quantification of blood flow dynamics. Here, direct blood cell flow imaging (DBFI) is demonstrated that provides visualization of individual motions of blood cells over a field of 0.71 mm x 1.42 mm with a time resolution of 0.69 ms (1450 frames s(-1)) without using any exogenous agents. DBFI enables precise dynamic analysis of blood cell flow velocities and fluxes in various vessels over a large field, from capillaries to arteries and veins, with unprecedented time resolution. Three exemplary applications of DBFI, quantification of blood flow dynamics of 3D vascular networks, analysis of heartbeat induced blood flow dynamics, and analysis of blood flow dynamics of neurovascular coupling, illustrate the potential of this new imaging technology.