A tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex system that comprises various components, including blood vessels that play a crucial role in supplying nutrients, oxygen, and growth factors, as well as delivering chemotherapy drugs to the tumor mass through the vascular endothelial barrier. To replicate the TME in vitro, several bioprinting and microfluidic organ-on-a-chip technologies have been developed. However, these technologies have not been fully exploited in terms of potential benefits of bioprinting and microfluidics, such as precise spatial control for biological samples, construction of multiple TMEs per microfluidic device, and the ability to adjust culture environments for better biological similarity. In addition, the complex transport phenomena within the vascular endothelial barrier and the aggregated tumor mass in the TME model should be considered before applying the model to drug treatment and screening. In this study, we describe a novel integrative technology that addresses these issues by introducing a self-organized TME array bioprinted on a microfluidic chip consisting of a vascular endothelial barrier surrounding breast cancer spheroids. To integrate the TME array onto the microfluidic platform, a microfluidic substrate for extrusion bioprinting was developed for a cell culture platform, which enables diffusivity control by microstructures and establishes a perfusion culture environment inside the culture channel. We also analyzed the cellular behaviors within the TME array to investigate the influence of the diffusivity on the self-organization process required to form the vascular endothelial barrier surrounding breast cancer spheroids.