Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) provides three-dimensional structural and semiquantitative imaging of microvasculature in vivo. We developed an OCTA imaging protocol for a murine kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model to investigate the correlation between renal microvascular changes and ischemic damage. Mice were divided into mild and moderate IRI groups according to the duration of ischemia (10 and 35 mins, respectively). Each animal was imaged at baseline; during ischemia; and at 1, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mins after ischemia. Amplitude decorrelation OCTA images were constructed with 1.5-, 3.0-, and 5.8-ms interscan times, to calculate the semiquantitative flow index in the superficial (50-70 mu m) and the deep (220-340 mu m) capillaries of the renal cortex. The mild IRI group showed no significant flow index change in both the superfial and the deep layers. The moderate IRI group showed a significantly decreased flow index from 15 and 45 mins in the superficial and deep layers, respectively. Seven weeks after IRI induction, the moderate IRI group showed lower kidney function and higher collagen deposition than the mild IRI group. OCTA imaging of the murine IRI model revealed changes in superficial blood flow after ischemic injury. A more pronounced decrease in superficial blood flow than in deep blood flow was associated with sustained dysfunction after IRI. Further investigation on post-IRI renal microvascular response using OCTA may improve our understanding of the relationship between the degree of ischemic insult and kidney function.