Considering the prevalence of alcohols and carboxylic acids, their fragment cross-coupling reactions could hold significant implications in organic synthesis. Herein, we report a versatile method for synthesizing a diverse range of ketones from alcohols and carboxylic acid derivatives via N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysis. Mechanistic investigations revealed that photoexcited xanthates and acyl azoliums undergo single electron transfer (SET) under photocatalyst-free conditions, generating NHC-derived ketyl radicals and alkyl radicals. These open-shell intermediates subsequently undergo the radical-radical cross-coupling reaction, yielding valuable ketones. Furthermore, this approach can be employed in three-component reactions involving alkenes and enynes, resulting in structurally diverse cross-coupled ketones. The unified strategy offers a unique opportunity for the fragment coupling of a diverse range of alcohols and carboxylic acid derivatives, accommodating diverse functional groups even in complex settings.