In drug discovery, efficient screening of protein-drug interactions (PDIs) is hampered by the limitations of current biophysical approaches. Here, we develop a biological nanopore sensor for single-molecule detection of proteins and PDIs using the pore-forming toxin YaxAB. Using this YaxAB nanopore, we demonstrate label-free, single-molecule detection of interactions between the anticancer Bcl-xL protein and small-molecule drugs as well as the Bak-BH3 peptide. The long funnel-shaped structure and nanofluidic characteristics of the YaxAB nanopore enable the electro-osmotic trapping of diverse folded proteins and high-resolution monitoring of PDIs. Distinctive nanopore event distributions observed in the two-dimensional (Delta I/I-o-versus-I-N) plot illustrate the ability of the YaxAB nanopore to discriminate individual small-molecule drugs bound to Bcl-xL from non-binders. Taken together, our results present the YaxAB nanopore as a robust platform for label-free, ultrasensitive, single-molecule detection of PDIs, opening up a possibility for low-cost, highly efficient drug discovery against diverse drug targets. Efficient screening of protein-drug interactions (PDIs) has been impeded by the limitations of current biophysical approaches. Here, the authors present a funneled YaxAB nanopore sensor which allows label-free, single-molecule detection of proteins and PDIs.