Acute stress response triggers various physiological responses such as energy mobilization to meet metabolic demands. However, the underlying molecular changes in the brain remain largely obscure. Here, we used a brief water avoidance stress (WAS) to elicit an acute stress response in mice. By employing RNA-sequencing and metabolomics profiling, we investigated the acute stress-induced molecular changes in the mouse whole brain. The aberrant expression of 60 genes was detected in the brain tissues of WAS-exposed mice. Functional analyses showed that the aberrantly expressed genes were enriched in various processes such as superoxide metabolism. In our global metabolomic profiling, a total of 43 brain metabolites were significantly altered by acute WAS. Metabolic pathways upregulated from WAS-exposed brain tissues relative to control samples included lipolysis, eicosanoid biosynthesis, and endocannabinoid synthesis. Acute WAS also elevated the levels of branched-chain amino acids, 5-aminovalerates, 4-hydroxy-nonenal-glutathione as well as mannose, suggesting complex metabolic changes in the brain. The observed molecular events in the present study provide a valuable resource that can help us better understand how acute psychological stress impacts neural functions.