Based on experience during our life, neuronal connectivity continuously changes through structural remodeling of synapses. Recent studies have shown that the complex interaction between astrocytes and synapses regulates structural synapse remodeling by inducing the formation and elimination of synapses, as well as their functional maturation. Defects in this astrocyte-mediated synapse remodeling cause problems in not only neuronal network activities but also animal behaviors. Moreover, in various neurological disorders, astrocytes have been shown to play central roles in the initiation and progression of synaptic pathophysiology through impaired interactions with synapses. In this review, we will discuss recent studies identifying the novel roles of astrocytes in neuronal circuit remodeling, focusing on synapse formation and elimination. We will also discuss the potential implication of defective astrocytic function in evoking various brain disorders.