In this study, a high-performance triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is developed based on cold spray (CS) deposition of composite material layers. Composite layers were fabricated by cold spraying of micron-scale tin (Sn) particles on aluminum (Al) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films, which led to improved TENG performance owing to functionalized composite layers as friction layers and electrodes, respectively. As -sprayed tin composite layers not only enhanced the flow of charges by strong adhesion to the target layer but also formed a nano- microstructure on the surface of the layers, thereby increasing the surface area during friction. More importantly, the electricity generation performance was improved more than 6 times as compared to the TENG without CS deposition on it. From parametric studies, the TENG using the cold-sprayed composite layer produced an electrical potential of 1140 V for a simple structure with a 25.4 x 25.4 mm2 contact area. We also optimize the geometry and fabrication process of the TENG to increase the manufacturing efficiency while reducing the processing cost. The resultant sprayed layers and structures exhibited sustainable robustness by showing consistent electrical performance after the mechanical adhesion test. The proposed manufacturing approach is also applicable for processing three-dimensional (3D) complex layers owing to the technological convergence of a cold spray gun attached to a robotic arm, which makes possible to fabricate the 3D TENG. To elaborate, a composite layer having the shape of a 3D ball is produced, and the exercise status of the ball is monitored in real-time. The fabricated 3D ball using the TENG transmitted a distinguishable signal in real-time according to the state of the ball. The proposed TENG sensing system can be utilized as a self-powered sensor without the need of a battery, amplifier, and rectifier. The results of this study can potentially provide insights for the practical material design and fabrication of self-powered TENG systems.