Terephthalic acid (TPA) is an important commodity chemical used as a monomer of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since a large quantity of PET is routinely manufactured and consumed worldwide, the development of sustainable biomanufacturing processes for its monomers (i.e. TPA and ethylene glycol) has recently gained much attention. In a previous study, we reported the development of a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain producing 6.7 g/L of TPA from p-xylene (pX) with a productivity and molar conversion yield of 0.278 g/L/h and 96.7 mol%, respectively. Here, we report metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a microbial chassis particularly suitable for the synthesis of aromatic compounds, for improved biocatalytic conversion of pX to TPA. To develop a plasmid-free, antibiotic-free, and inducer-free biocatalytic process for cost-competitive TPA production, all heterologous genes required for the synthetic pX-to-TPA bioconversion pathway were integrated into the chromosome of P. putida KT2440 by RecET-based markerless recombineering and overexpressed under the control of constitutive promoters. Next, TPA production was enhanced by integrating multiple copies of the heterologous genes to the ribosomal RNA genes through iteration of recombineering-based random integration and subsequent screening of high-performance strains. Finally, fed-batch fermentation process was optimized to further improve the performance of the engineered P. putida strain. As a result, 38.25 ± 0.11 g/L of TPA was produced from pX with a molar conversion yield of 99.6 ± 0.6%, which is equivalent to conversion of 99.3 ± 0.8 g pX to 154.6 ± 0.5 g TPA. This superior pX-to-TPA biotransformation process based on the engineered P. putida strain will pave the way to the commercial biomanufacturing of TPA in an industrial scale.