The immune landscape of high-grade brain tumor after treatment with immune checkpoint blockade

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Despite the therapeutic success of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy against multiple tumors, many patients still do not benefit from ICB. In particular, high-grade brain tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), have a very low response rate to ICB, resulting in several failed clinical trials. This low response rate might be caused by a lack of understanding of the unique characteristics of brain immunity. To overcome this knowledge gap, macroscopic studies of brain immunity are needed. We use single cell RNA sequencing to analyze the immune landscape of the tumor microenvironment (TME) under anti-PD-1 antibody treatment in a murine GBM model. We observe that CD8 T cells show a mixed phenotype overall that includes reinvigoration and re-exhaustion states. Furthermore, we find that CCL5 induced by anti-PD-1 treatment might be related to an increase in the number of anti-inflammatory macrophages in the TME. Therefore, we hypothesize that CCL5-mediated recruitment of anti-inflammatory macrophages may be associated with re-exhaustion of CD8 T cells in the TME. We compare our observations in the murine GBM models with publicly available data from human patients with recurrent GBM. Our study provides critical information for the development of novel immunotherapies to overcome the limitations of anti-PD-1 therapy.
Publisher
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Issue Date
2022-12
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Citation

FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, v.13

DOI
10.3389/fimmu.2022.1044544
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/304474
Appears in Collection
MSE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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