Air pollution is on the priority list of global safety issues, with the concern of fatal environmental and public health deterioration. 2D materials are potential adsorbent materials for environmental decontamination, owing to their high surface area, manageable interlayer binding, large surface-to-volume ratio, specific binding capability, and chemical, thermal, and mechanistic stability. Specifically, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have been attracting attention, taking advantage of their low cost synthesis, excessive oxygen containing surface functionalities, and intrinsic aqueous dispersibility, making them desirable for the development of cost-effective, high performance air filters. Many different material designs have been proposed to expand their filtration capability, including the functionalization and integration with other metals and metal oxides, which act not only as binding agents to the target pollutants but also as antimicrobial agents. This review highlights the advantages and drawbacks of 2D materials for air filtration and summarizes the interrelationships among various strategies and the resultant filtration performance in terms of structural engineering, morphology control, and material compositions. Finally, potential future directions are suggested toward the idealized designs of 2D material based air filters.