Various metabolic diseases are associated with the accumulation of specific amino acids due to abnormal metabolic pathways, and thus can be diagnosed by measuring the level of amino acids in body fluids. However, present methods for amino acid analysis are not readily accessible because they require a complex experimental setup, expensive equipment, and a long processing time. Here, we present a dual sensing microfluidic device that enables fast, portable, and quantitative analysis of target amino acids, harnessing the biological mechanism of protein synthesis. In this device, the working principle of a finger-actuated pumping unit is applied, and the microchannels are designed to perform cell-free synthesis of a reporter protein in response to the target amino acids in the assay samples. Multiple steps required for the translational assay are controlled by the simple operation of two pushbuttons on the device. It is demonstrated that the developed microfluidic device provides precise quantification of two amino acids (methionine and phenylalanine) within 30 min at room temperature. We expect that the application of the presented device can be readily extended to the point-of-care testing of other metabolic compounds.