Activated Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells differentiate into effector Treg (eTreg) cells to maintain peripheral immune homeostasis and tolerance. T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated induction and regulation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is essential for eTreg cell differentiation and function. However, SOCE regulation in Treg cells remains unclear. Here, we show that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which generates inositol tetrakisphosphate and inositol pentakisphosphate, is a pivotal regulator of Treg cell differentiation downstream of TCR signaling. IPMK is highly expressed in TCR-stimulated Treg cells and promotes a TCR-induced Treg cell program. IPMK-deficient Treg cells display aberrant T cell activation and impaired differentiation into ROR gamma t(+) Treg cells and tissue-resident Treg cells. Mechanistically, IPMK controls the generation of higher-order inositol phosphates, thereby promoting Ca2+ mobilization and Treg cell effector functions. Our findings identify IPMK as a critical regulator of TCR-mediated Ca2+ influx and highlight the importance of IPMK in Treg cell-mediated immune homeostasis.