Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE1, L1) is a retrotransposon comprising similar to 17% of the human genome. A subset of L1s maintains the potential to mobilize and alter the genomic landscape, consequently contributing to the change in genome integrity and gene expression. L1 retrotransposition occurs in the human brain regardless of disease status. However, in the brain of patients with various brain diseases, the expression level and copy number of L1 are significantly increased. In this review, we briefly introduce the methodologies applied to measure L1 mobility and identify genomic loci where new insertion of L1 occurs in the brain. Then, we present a list of genes disrupted by L1 transposition in the genome of patients with brain disorders. Finally, we discuss the association between genes disrupted by L1 and relative brain disorders.