Eukaryotic translation is a complex process that involves the interplay of various translation factors to convert genetic information into a specific amino acid chain. According to an elegant model of eukaryotic translation initiation, the 3' poly(A) tail of an mRNA, which is occupied by poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs), communicates with the 5'-cap bound by eIF4E to enhance translation. Although the circulari-zation of mRNA resulting from the communication is widely understood, it has yet to be directly observed. To explore mRNA circularization in translation, we analyzed the level of colocalization of eIF4E, eIF4G, and PABP on individual mRNAs in polysomal and subpolysomal fractions using single polysome analysis. Our results show that the three tested proteins barely coexist in mRNA in either polysomal or subpolysomal fractions, implying that the closed-loop structure generated by the communication be-tween eIF4E, eIF4G, and PAPB may be transient during translation. (C) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.