Cancer-targeting ligands used for nanomedicines have been limited mostly to antibodies, peptides, aptamers, and small molecules thus far. Here, a library of glycocalyx-mimicking nanoparticles as a platform to enable screening and identification of cancer-targeting nanomedicines is reported. Specifically, a library of 31 artificial glycopolymers composed of either homogeneous or heterogeneous display of five different sugar moieties (beta-glucose, beta-galactose, alpha-mannose, beta-N-acetyl glucosamine, and beta-N-acetyl galactosamine) is converted to a library of glyconanoparticles (GlyNPs). GlyNPs optimal for targeting CT26, DU145, A549, and PC3 tumors are systematically screened and identified. The cypate-conjugated GlyNP displaying alpha-mannose and beta-N-acetyl glucosamine show selective targeting and potent photothermal therapeutic efficacy against A549 human lung tumors. The docetaxel-contained GlyNP displaying beta-glucose, beta-galactose, and alpha-mannose demonstrate targeted chemotherapy against DU145 human prostate tumors. The results presented herein collectively demonstrate that the GlyNP library is a versatile platform enabling the identification of cancer-targeting glyconanoparticles and suggest its potential applicability for targeting various diseased cells beyond cancer.