Block copolymer (BCP) nanopatterning has emerged as a versatile nanoscale fabrication tool for semiconductor devices and other applications, because of its ability to organize well-defined, periodic nanostructures with a critical dimension of 5-100 nm. While the most promising application field of BCP nanopatterning has been semiconductor devices, the versatility of BCPs has also led to enormous interest from a broad spectrum of other application areas. In particular, the intrinsically low cost and straightforward processing of BCP nanopatterning have been widely recognized for their large-area parallel formation of dense nanoscale features, which clearly contrasts that of sophisticated processing steps of the typical photolithographic process, including EUV lithography. In this Review, we highlight the recent progress in the field of BCP nanopatterning for various nonsemiconductor applications. Notable examples relying on BCP nanopatterning, including nanocatalysts, sensors, optics, energy devices, membranes, surface modifications and other emerging applications, are summarized. We further discuss the current limitations of BCP nanopatterning and suggest future research directions to open up new potential application fields.