The human microbiome plays an essential role in the human immune system, food digestion, and protection from harmful bacteria by colonizing the human intestine. Recently, although the human microbiome affects colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, the mode of action between the microbiome and CRC remains unclear. This study showed that propionate suppressed CRC growth by promoting the proteasomal degradation of euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2) through HECT domain E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (HECTD2) upregulation. In addition, EHMT2 downregulation reduced the H3K9me2 level on the promoter region of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 1 (TNFAIP1) as a novel direct target of EHMT2. Subsequently, TNFAIP1 upregulation induced the apoptosis of CRC cells. Furthermore, using Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron culture medium, we confirmed EHMT2 downregulation via upregulation of HECTD2 and TNFAIP1 upregulation. Finally, we observed the synergistic effect of propionate and an EHMT2 inhibitor (BIX01294) in 3D spheroid culture models. Thus, we suggest the anticancer effects of propionate and EHMT2 as therapeutic targets for colon cancer treatment and may provide the possibility for the synergistic effects of an EHMT2 inhibitor and microbiome in CRC treatment.