Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used mammalian host cells for the commercial production of therapeutic proteins. Fed-batch culture is widely used to produce therapeutic proteins, including monoclonal antibodies, because of its operational simplicity and high product titer. Despite technical advances in the development of culture media and cell cultures, it is still challenging to maintain high productivity in fed batch cultures while also ensuring good product quality. In this review, factors that affect the quality attributes of therapeutic proteins in recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell culture, such as glycosylation, charge variation, aggregation, and degradation, are summarized and categorized into three groups: culture environments, chemical additives, and host cell proteins accumulated in culture supernatants. Understanding the factors that influence the therapeutic protein quality in rCHO cell culture will facilitate the development of large-scale, high yield fed-batch culture processes for the production of high-quality therapeutic proteins.