Glucose metabolism is a mechanism by which energy is produced in form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by mitochondria and precursor metabolites are supplied to enable the ultimate enrichment of mature metabolites in the cell. Recently, glycolytic enzymes have been shown to have unconventional but important functions. Among these enzymes, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) plays several roles including having conventional metabolic enzyme activity, and also being a transcriptional regulator and a protein kinase. Compared with the closely related PKM1, PKM2 is highly expressed in cancer cells and embryos, whereas PKM1 is dominant in mature, differentiated cells. Posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation of PKM2 change its cellular functions. In particular, PKM2 can translocate to the nucleus, where it regulates the transcription of many target genes. It is notable that PKM2 also acts as a protein kinase to phosphorylate several substrate proteins. Besides cancer cells and embryonic cells, astrocytes also highly express PKM2, which is crucial for lactate production via expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), while mature neurons predominantly express PKM1. The lactate produced in cancer cells promotes tumor progress and that in astrocytes can be supplied to neurons and may act as a major source for neuronal ATP energy production. Thereby, we propose that PKM2 along with its different posttranslational modifications has specific purposes for a variety of cell types, performing unique functions.